The Berlin Process for the Western Balkans: Four Recommendations to Achieve Progress

The authors write that the ninth EU-Western Balkans summit, which recently ended in Berlin, introduced some improvements to the Berlin Process....


Ein Kampfflugzeug vom Typ Tornado steht bei Nacht auf einem beleuchteten Vorfeld zwischen zwei Hangars.
Foto: Bundeswehr

Germany and NATO’s Nuclear Deterrent

The benefits to Germany of retiring and not replacing its small fleet of nuclear-certified Tornado fighter-bombers are obvious. The German defense budget...


Bundeswehr/Nurgün Ekmekcibasi

Artificial Intelligence in the Armed Forces: On the need for regulation regarding autonomy in weapon systems

Scientists and representatives of civilian technology companies, the drivers of innovation in the field of AI, have been warning about a paradigm shift in...


Crown Copyright/Follows/Defence Images/Flickr/CC BY 2.0

Legal Regulations for Autonomous Weapon Systems: Potentials and Limitations

Regulatory hurdle: What should be the object of regulation?

In light of the possible risks and challenges of (semi-)autonomous weapon systems, a...


Bundeswehr/Sebastian Wilke

Is Every Soldier a Veteran? A Critical Analysis of the 2018 German Veteran Definition

In its issue of 18 November 2018 Bild am Sonntag quotes the present Federal Minister of Defence, Ursula von der Leyen, as saying that “All veterans, whether...



The 2-Percent Objective and the Bundeswehr Discussion about the German Defence Budget

The Origin and (In-) Appropriateness of the 2-Percent Objective

At the latest when the SPD formulated the slogan “Better 6 percent more spending on...


Bundeswehr/Jane Schmidt

Is conscription a guarantee of national defense? Some remarks on the justification for reactivating conscription

Why conscription? – a change in legitimation

Debates about the legitimacy of conscription are as old as the Bundeswehr itself. Some essential policy issues...

Commercial Project or Strategic Disorientation? The Controversial Nord Stream 2 Gas Pipeline

No other energy policy project of the EU and Germany is as controversial as the construction of the Nord Stream 2 natural gas pipeline (NS-2). Germany,...


Blümer/Flickr/CC BY 2.0

On the Way to a Common Strategic Culture: How far along is the development of a European Security and Defence Union, and what does that mean for the Bundeswehr?

Europe in an Uncertain World

The multipolar world many hoped would take the place of U.S. hegemony has now become a reality, yet this world looks nothing...


Bundeswehr/Jane Schmidt

A Backward Roll in Exports? The Coalition Agreement Does Not Solve Problems Concerning the Bundeswehr and the German Arms Industry

The 2018 coalition agreement has been finalised, and the 12th of 13 chapters outlines the ideas of the fourth Merkel cabinet on “Germany’s responsibility...


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